Bougainville

bougainville

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

 

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A piece of history

Louis Antoine de Bougainville was born on November 11, 1729 in Paris. Coming from a bourgeois family, he is the son of a notary and alderman of the city of Paris.

He undertakes long studies at the University College and marks special skills for mathematics. In 1754 he publish a treatise on integral calculus which has retained a certain reputation.

He became a lawyer, but he quickly gave up this career to embrace the military path. He entered the Black Musketeers and became General Chevert's aide-de-camp. In 1756 he was part of the Canadian expedition under Montcalm.

In 1759 Bougainville was promoted colonel. In 1763, he left the army to enter the navy where he was appointed captain of the ship. With two ships, Aigle and Sphinx, he left to found a colony in the Malvinas Islands. Three years later, by order of King Louis XV, he handed the Malouines to the Spaniards, whom the English will soon take back to give them the name of Falklands.

In 1766 he undertakes the journey around the world that will make him famous. With “Boudeuse” and “L'Étoile”, he left Brest in 1766. Through the Strait of Magellan he won the South Seas. His journey took him to New Cythera in April 1768 (Tahiti), then to Samoa, the Great Cyclades (New Hebrides), New Britain (Bismarck Islands), New Guinea, Mauritius. After crossing the Cape of Good Hope, it goes back to Saint-Malo, where it dock after two and a half years of travel. His story published in 1771 under the name of "Voyage around the world" is a huge success.

He plans a new discovery trip to the North Pole, but the Minister of Brienne refuses him this favor. In 1790, he received the command of the Brest fleet, but unable to appease the troubles that occur there, he left the navy after having refused the ministry in 1792 to devote himself to the study of sciences.

Bougainville is arrested during the Terror and released following the fall of Robespierre. In 1796, he was elected a member of the Institute and a member of the Bureau des Longitudes. Bonaparte the height of dignity: senator in 1799, grand officer of the Legion of Honor in 1804, Earl of Empire in 1808.

He presides the War Council which judges the persons responsible for the disaster of Trafalgar in 1809. This will be his last official function. He died on August 31, 1811.

Bourbon

bourbon

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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A piece of history

In 1767, the East India Company definitively surrendered “Ile Bourbon” to the king who administered it directly. It’s governor remains dependent of the “Islands of France” and “Bourbon”, installed in Port-Louis, who is lieutenant general of the King and military leader, assisted by an authorizing officer in charge of the economic and financial administration, placed under the authority of the steward of the “Ile de France”. Two authorizing officers are distinguished by their activity: Crémont (1767-1778) and Thibaut de Chanvalon (1785-1789).

Until then, known in French under the name of Mascarene, it becomes under the name of Bourbon a stopover of the French East Indies Company then quickly turns into a strategic counter of the route of the Indies because of the rise of the coffee trade from the 1710s.

Soon a true plantation company, the colony then went under the direct control of the King of France in the 1760s before being reassigned to sugar cane cultivation at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, then to be definitively renamed his current name, Reunion, and deprived of the use of slavery in 1848. It follows an economic crisis to which a definitive term will be put only with its transformation into a French department in 1946.

Saint Aloüarn

saint-alouarn

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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A piece of history

In 1772, Louis de Saint-Aloüarn was the commander of “Gros Ventre”, the second boat of the Kerguelen de Trémarec expedition on Fortune. Expedition, authorized by Louis XV, which aimed to discover the fifth continent.

In February 1772, "La Fortune" and "The Gros-Ventre" are in the South Indian Ocean, when the 12th, Yves de Kerguelen on "La Fortune" sees the islands that will bear his name, the Kerguelen Islands. He thinks he has reached the Southern continent, and gives this land the name of Southern France without being able to disembark because of bad weather.

After consultation with Louis de Saint-Aloüarn second of the expedition and commander of "Le Gros-Ventre", Kerguelen sends him the Ensign of Rosily-Mesros (future Admiral and Earl of Empire) with the big boat of "La Fortune", to attempt a landing. Two days later, with great difficulty, the Ensign of Boisgnehennec, second of "Le Gros-Ventre" landed with Rosily-Mesros and took possession of the territory in the name of King Louis XV.

A storm then separating the two ships, Kerguelen returned to France, without waiting for Saint-Aloüarn and "Le Gros-Ventre" ... nor Rosily-Mesros.

Meanwhile "The Big-Belly" continued the exploration campaign more seriously, only returning to the island of France on September 5, 1772, after exploring Timor and Australian coasts, Rosily-Mesros doing very good surveys. river. Alas Louis de Saint-Aloüarn will die soon after his arrival.

On January 16, 1998, a Franco-Australian expedition had just discovered a bottle buried in the sand of the desert coast of Dirk Hartog Island, on the North-West of the mainland island, the proofs of the taking possession of the Australia in the name of King Louis XV of France, March 30, 1772, by a Breton naval officer, Louis de Saint-Aloüarn.

Samoa

samoa

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160. You will have access to your own terrace and the garden.

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A piece of history

Populated for about 3,000 years by a Polynesian people, Samoa was occupied around 1000 BC Jacob Roggeveen was the first Dutchman to identify the archipelago in 1722.

In 1768, the French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville passed the archipelago which he named the Navigator Islands. The first European navigator to set foot on one of the islands of the archipelago was Jean François de Galaup, count of Lapérouse in 1787.

He landed on the island of Tutuila (now in American Samoa) before being attacked by the population. His second in command, the Viscount of Langle and 11 crew members were killed. These first difficult contacts between Samoans and Europeans gave to the archipelago the reputation of being not hospitable consequently of which this one was little visited.

Vanikoro

vanikoro

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroomwith one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160. You will also have access to your own terrace and the garden.

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A piece of history

It was at Vanikoro, located in the “Solomon” Islands archipelago, that the members of the Lapérouse expedition died in 1788.

Commander Dumont d'Urville left Toulon in April 1825 to conduct a new discovery expedition whose road was to pass where the traces of the sinking of the Astrolabe and the Boussole were supposed to be, the two ships of the Lapérouse expedition. It was not until 1826-1827 that a British merchant captain, Peter Dillon, discovered remains of the sinking on Vanikoro Atoll with the Astrolabe's bell; as for the Compass, there is not the slightest trace of it.

Peter Dillon learns from the testimony of natives of Vanikoro Island how two large ships would have been stranded by a night of great storm: one would have sunk right, the other would have stranded on the coral reef and the survivors would have settled on the island. Five or six months later, some of the survivors would leave on board a small boat made from the wreckage of the big ship. Two men remained on the island: one would have died quickly, the other would have left the island with a tribal leader in disgrace.

Dumont d'Urville then goes to Vanikoro and inaugurates on March 14, 1828 a monument of wood and coral in memory of Lapérouse and his crew.

In 2005, the wrecks of the Boussole and the Astrolabe, the two Lapérouse ships were formally identified, as well as the traces of a camp on the ground occupied for several years. In 2008, under the direction of Admiral Battet, leader of the ultimate expedition destined to unravel a 220-year-old mystery, two ships of the French Navy spent a month, from September 15 to October 15, to examine, at using the most sophisticated technical means, all the assumptions about the survival of survivors of the sinking of the Astrolabe.

Kerguelen

kerguelen

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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A piece of history

Yves Joseph of Kerguelen de Trémarec (February 13, 1734, manor of Trémarec, Landudal (Finistère) - March 3, 1797, Paris) is a naval officer and a French navigator, discoverer of the southern seas.

Having no fortune, he embarked at 16 as a marine guard in the Royal Navy after studying at a college of Jesuits. On the occasion of an assignment in Dunkirk, he married in 1758 Marie-Laurence de Bonte. His father-in-law, former burgomaster of Dunkirk, armed the Sage, a ship of 56 guns and 450 crewmen, racing during the Seven Years' War. Kerguelen took command in 1761 to lead a campaign in the Caribbean, which will prove very fruitful.

Lieutenant in 1763, he carried out hydrographic surveys in Brittany, which determined his admission to the Navy Academy as a deputy member.

In 1767, he obtained the command of La Folle to carry out a campaign of protection of cod fishermen in Iceland. In 1768, he returned to the North Atlantic (Greenland and Bergen) with the corvette l'Hirondelle and became familiar with navigation in the cold seas. In 1768 he brought back two white bears for the menagerie of King Louis XV.

"I went to Versailles in September 1770, to propose to the Duke de Praslin, Minister of the Navy, the plan for a discovery campaign in the Antarctic seas. I saw that it was not the moment to undertake such operations. [...] The affairs having then [arranged] with the court of England, [...] the occasion became favorable to propose the voyage of discovery. [...] I was given the command of the ship of King Berrier, who was in the East. [...] I embarked 14 months of food for 300 crewmen. [...] The first day of May [1771], I set sail. [...] I cut the line on June 10 by twenty-two degrees west longitude of the meridian of Paris, which I will always use [...] I arrived at the Isle of France August 20. "

During his stopover on the island of France, he is well received by the governor of Roches and Intendant Poivre. He also meets Commerson, Marion-Dufresne, and the young Lapérouse. He replaces his big ship against the flute La Fortune and the gabarre Gros Ventre, two lighter ships, better adapted to the object of his mission. On February 12, 1772, in the southern Indian Ocean, he saw a land where he thought he saw the southern continent, and gave it the name of southern France. It is actually the Kerguelen Islands. Heavy weather prevents any landing until February 14, the day a sign can land and take possession of the territory in the name of the king.

The storm separates the ships, and Kerguelen continues on his way alone, abandoning the Big Belly then commanded by Louis de Saint Aloüarn. He arrives at Brest on July 16, 1772, while the second ship awaits him and searches for him in vain. It will continue the stops in the order announced, in appalling conditions, to Timor and the Australian coast before returning to the Île de France on September 5th. Despite this adventure, Lapérouse tells us that Kerguelen was received in France as a new Christopher Columbus. At Versailles, he gives the king a very optimistic description of the resources of the lands he had discovered, convincing the king to order a second expedition. He does not know yet that the Big Belly has reappeared, nor that the testimonies of the survivors go against his.

Siam

siam

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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A piece of history

In 1741, Pierre Poivre (who will become steward of the Mascarenes on the “Ile de France” where he will later host the navigator Kerguelen) is destined for the evangelization of the Far East and embarks for China but his taste for adventure quickly extinguishes its religious vocation. He travels and is interested in everything related to trade and agriculture. He is the first to describe lychee. A little later, his nephew, Pierre Sonnerat, naturalist and explorer published in 1782 his Voyage to India and China made from 1774 until 1781.

Louis XV and Louis XVI widely open the coffers of the state to finance the huge expenses that these expeditions entail. The Compagnie des Indes therefore pursues its commercial activities, to which is added the evangelization of the colonized countries.

Despite the problems encountered in Siam by Catholic priests, the Foreign Missions of Paris (MEP) regularly send priests to this region of Asia. In 1713, following the Burmese invasion of Siam, Brother Pierre Pigneau of Behaine with his 40 students, found refuge in Malacca on the way back to India.

In 1767, Jean-François de Surville, a Breton merchant, asked the East India Company for the right to trade in their territories. He will leave to discover New Zealand. On June 2, 1767, he arrived in the Straits of Malacca and one can probably imagine that he also stopped in Singapore to refuel in food and drinking water before going to explore the Pacific.

Macao

macao

This luxurious room of 35m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroomwith one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160 and a living room (two separates room). This room and the living room have their own terrace and access to the garden.

 

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A piece of history

The expedition then leaves the bay (late July 1786), along the California coast and stops at Monterey (south of San Francisco) where Lapérouse has a mass, by the Spanish Mission, for missing sailors.

It takes 80 days to reach the Mariana Islands and another 15 days to reach Macao. He will not see anything on his way except Island Necker, a simple rock for seabirds, and the French fregate shoal a little further. A serious accident is narrowly avoided on an atoll of the Hawaiian chain. The northernmost Marianne Island will provide only a few coconuts.

Then it is China and the Portuguese colony of Macao where he recognizes the governor met in Goa. He also has the joy of meeting a French military ship belonging to the fleet stationed in India but which unfortunately does not bring him mail. Entrecasteaux himself is not far off, preparing to enter the Canton River in delicate administrative circumstances. The sale of furs to the Chinese is more difficult and less profitable than expected; after the purchase of Chinese porcelain. Lapérouse leaves disappointed by a despotic country where Europeans are poorly received. He is heading to Manila where he wants to rehabilitate his ships in the Spanish arsenals.

Begum

image

This is a beautiful Luxurious room of 35m2 with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with a lounge and dinner space and an independant bathroom with two vask, a shower and a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size baldachin bed of 160.

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A piece of history

Begum is a title given in Hindustan to the favorite wife of the sultan or nabob and equals that of "queen". This is a way to address and an honorary title. At 28, Madec becomes a true warlord. It is an army of 1,500 fighters including a hundred Europeans. Fortune begins to smile to the young Breton who, a few months later, marries Marie-Anne Barbette, the daughter of one of Prince Shuja's advisors and makes her Begum.

The bride, a Creole, is only 13 years old. The wedding is celebrated with a lot of pomp as Madec himself wrote. "All the great men of the country accompanied me, an innumerable populace followed the procession, I closed the march between two hedges of fireworks and illuminations, dressed in a magnificent silver dress." These festivities, which will involve sumptuary spending, will last a week.

In 1767, the young Marie-Anne gives birth to a girl who dies shortly after. Then Madec joins the Jats at war against the Rajputs in the region of Agra. He reformed his troops and bought elephants. His victories will earn him a reward in hard currency, in diamonds and in gold and silver stuff. He will buy and completely restore a palace in Bharatpur where he will settle with his wife and Balthazar, his son a few months.

In 1782 Marie-Anne will give a third daughter to Madec. In 1784, considerably weakened by malaria, and victim of a fall of horse, the Nabob is carried away in the spring by the gangrene. Marie-Anne Barbette, the Begum lived in Quimper until his death in 1841.

Le Repaire du Nabab

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Welcome in the den of "le repaire du Nabab" This luxurious room with high wood ceiling is very charming. It is composed with a lounge and dinner space and an independant bathroom with two vask, a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160. The room is on the last floor, not accessible by elevator.

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A piece of history

The first travel

René Madec was born in 1736, eights child of François Madec, school teacher and of Corentine Manon Melin, hostel landlady. During his childhood, he is more attracted by the Quimper’s harbor than school. His fisherman’s future is decided. At nine years old, he embarks for the first time during four months, on a wine’s coaster. After this first attempt on the sea, his father makes him take navigation’s and hydrography’s lessons. He wants his son to join the Orien’s battalion of “Compagnie des Indes”, as an officer. René Madec is only eleven years old when he sails for Saint Domingue.

Sailor and Soldier

In 1750, new start from Lorient, destination of Pondichéry. This trip impregnate him forever of India’s charm. Back in Brittany, he now has only one purpose, going back in these exotic countries. As soon as he arrived in 1952, he is joining the army of Dupleix to fight against the British troops, gone for the conquest of India territory. After main fights, peace between French and British is signed. Dupleix, repudiate, go back to France. Madec, after served as a soldier for three years, think about going home but he can’t pass along Bourbon Island where he has to sign as a sailor to merchandise in the Indian Ocean.

In 1756, war start again between belligerents; Madec goes back to Pondichéry. After serving in the merchant navy, he signs in at the naval forces. When he learns that his squadron is going to Mauritius (France Island at the time), he decide to deserte and swim to the closest mainland. He joined a new Navy battalion formed by Knight “Pouêt” where he is graded petty officer. On December 11th 1758, French troops arrive in Madras to drain the British. This operation last 45 days, it is a fail. Starts a very long adventure’s wandering through different regions. Madec find himself commanding a troop of 400 sepoys. In 1760, Lally Tollendal put himself in a delicate situation and ask help to Madec. He wants to attack Madras but the French army have to lock themselves in Gingy tower and capitulates 5 months later. Madec is made a prisoner by the British and lock up at Madras Fort.

Madec wants to get out of jail and avoid starving to death in there. So he agrees, like hundreds of French prisoners, to sign in with the opponents troops. He is sent to Calcutta where he stays for a year. He takes this time to study the local dialects, customs and politics of the country. After participate to the rout of Nabad of Bengale’s army (Kassem Ali Khan) for the British, he takes the lead of a mutiny who win against Nabab, near Bénarès, where are also present Grand Moghold Shah Alam II and Vizier Sudjah Dowlah. It’s the beginning of Madec’s carrier as a war chief, influent advisor and fortune.

Nabab

In 1764, he is leading a private army, about 1500 men, who are serving the Rajas and then the Grand Moghol himself. In the same time, he starts to build a colossal fortune. Beginning of 1766, he marries the Prince Sujha’s advisor’s daughter, Marie-Anne Barbette, 13 years old. Her family has a French origin. The wedding and the festivities are extremely ostentatious and expensive.

Around 1767, he supports the Jats in the conflit against Rajputs. His victories are widely reward by a lot of gold and money, which allows him to buy a palace and move in with his wife and new born son, Balthazar-René-Félix. A new victory steal his honorific title of Panchazari and his considerable fortune make him think about returning to France. But the French government in Chandernagor wish to get close to the Indian Princes in the purpose of contain the British and eventually expulse them from Bengale.

Madec goes back to war for the Empereur Moghol Shâh Âlam II, who honors him of thr Nabab title, to thank him for his military services. He imparts him too with the Bocci title, which place him at the third rank of the imperial hierarchy, right after the great vizier. His army count at the time about 6000 mens. He has become the most important and influent man of Hindustan. With his family, who counts now a daughter, Marie-Anne, he lives some times in Dehli, then Hyderabab; he finally arrives to Pondichéry in February 1778. One more time, he signs in, during the attack of the town by the British. On October 18th, it’s the capitulation; two months later, with a safe-conduct, Madec leaves India and go back to France.

Last years in Quimper

On January 11th 1779, they are leaving back to France, on the « Brisson ». After a stop on Mauritius Island, the boat arrives in Europe where they are attack close to Spain by British corsair. Made prisoners, René Madec is detained two months in Ireland. Landed in Lorient, he is going to Versailles Court where he has to give to Louis XVI the governor’s Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe report, about the Pondichéry attack. They inform him that since two years, on January 1777, he has the rank of colonel. He is then ennobling by the king.

René Madec goes back to Quimper with his fortune and settles in a hotel, the street where he stayed wear his name now. He buys two lands, Coatfao in Pluguffan and Prat an Raz in Penhars, where he build the castle. In 1782, his second daughter is born, Marie-Henriette. He will die in 1784 after falling from his horse. His spouse will die in 1841.

The artist Bartabas was inspired by René Madec’s life for his equestrian show in Galantes India in 2005 in Versailles.

Laperouse

laperouse

This Junior Suite room of 45m2 (2 to 5 persons), with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with a lounge and dinner space and an independant bathroom with two vask, a shower and a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160. You will have also have your own private terrace and access to the garden.

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A piece of history

Born at “château de Guo”, near Albi (France) on August 22sd 1741. Died at Île de Vanikoro” (Salomon Island) in 1788.

Jean-François, Comte of La Pérouse, join the marines in 1756. Vessel Chief starting 1780, he fights the British and destroys two of their military edifice in Hudson Bay. On August 1st, in 1785, he embarks as Captain on “La Boussole” frigate, followed by the “Astrolabe”, this last one being under Fleuriot’s authority. He is in charge to lead the expedition around the world and leave from Brest harbour. He first goes on the “Île de Pâques” then go along North America, Alaska, before reaching Hawaii, Philippines, and Japan. He gives his name to a strait, between Hokkaido Island and Sekhaline. In the Pacific, Samoa, he loses few mens, kills by natives. He sent his last mail from Australia in 1788. His tracks will only be find in 1826 by Captain Dillon, near Vanikoro Island.

Les Grands Moghols

grands-moghols

This Junior Suite room of 45m2 (2 to 5 persons), with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with a lounge and dinner space and an independant bathroom with two vask, a shower and a bathtub, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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A piece of history

The great Mughal emperors, conquerors from Asia, descendants of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, transformed India in a few decades, engulfing principalities and kingdoms in their wake. Their main rivals were the Rajputs, divided into eminently belligerent clans and the Marathi who blocked their access to southern India. Under the generic name of "Mughal" is the dynasty of the Timurids (descendant of Tamerlane), of Turkish origin, who reigned over India from 1526 to 1858. The rulers of this dynasty were called the Great Mughals.

Shah Alam II (1728-1806) was the last Mughal ruler of the Timurid dynasty in India.

He was in turn the plaything of the English and the Marathi, whose weakness and irresolution heightened his audacity more and more. His reign ended in the loss of the Mughal influence on Bengal, sealed after the Battle of Buxar (1764).

Shâh Alam II honored Rene Madec as a nabob, in gratitude for the military services rendered. He also conferred on him the title of Bocci, who placed him in the third rank of the imperial hierarchy, just after the Grand Vizier and endowed him with a vast jaguir (a kind of fief).

One of his vassals, Ghulam Qadir, tried to dethrone him, and, after seizing his person, cut his eyes in 1788; but he soon suffered the punishment of his crime, and Shah Alam was restored to his crown. The unfortunate sovereign reigned for another 18 years, and died in 1806.

Dupleix

dupleix

This caractère room of 20m2, with it's natural and soft tones, wood ceiling and exposed beam, is composed with an independant bathroom with one vask, a shower, towel dryer and hair dryer. It is equiped with a king size bed of 160.

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Un peu d'histoire

The son of a shareholder of the East India Company, Joseph Dupleix was born in Landrecies, in the North of France, on January 1, 1697. His father sent him very young to India where in the first part of his life he worked essentially to develop the commerce of the Company, and endeavored to make a fortune. He was greatly helped by his wife, Jeanne de Castro, a Creole of Portuguese origin, who knew the local languages and customs admirably. Associated with all her husband's thoughts, she had a great share in her successes and failures.

Governor of Pondicherry and Governor General of the French possessions of India, in 1742, he found himself struggling with the difficulties arising from the Austrian Civil War and had to become a warlord. He undertook to ruin English power on the coast of Coromandel and seized Madras, with the help of the Navy, improvised in the Ile-de-France by General La Bourdonnais, but the disagreement which reigned between the two men prevented from taking advantage of this brilliant operation. Left alone on the spot following the destruction of the squadron by a cyclone, he was besieged in Pondicherry by the forces of the English and their native allies. He forced them to raise the siege and he was going to be in a position to win new successes when the peace of Aix-La Chapelle came.

Created marquis and "red cord" (knight of the military order of Saint Louis), a rare reward for a civilian, Dupleix then undertook the work to which his name remains attached. Until then the Europeans had come to India only as traders. Dupleix proposed to intervene in the quarrels of native princes and gradually establish a system of protectorate which, supported by a military force, would assure France a monopoly of traffic and a practical sovereignty. He came up against the English, who employed methods modeled on his own, and thus in full peace, English and French troops were fighting in Hindustan. As long as it was successful, Dupleix was allowed to go forward, but he had only mediocre troops and could never find, with the exception of Bussy, military leaders capable of effectively supporting his designs.

Returning to France in 1754, he died in 1763 in a state close to misery.